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again reconsidered its goals. More ambitious numbers were need-
ed to reﬂect the reality of the sector and to assure businesses that
the government remained committed to this growth. As a result,
a new goal of approximately 20,000 megawatts was set, a leap of
almost 50 percent.
“I believe this is achievable for a very fundamental reason,”
said Garcia. “In Spain right now there is social and political
consensus in favor of wind power. And that, together with the
private-sector initiative, makes us very optimistic regarding the
future of wind power.”
Today, wind power fulﬁlls about 6 percent of the coun-
try’s electricity needs (in the United States, for instance, the
AWEA’s goal is to reach the 6 percent level by 2020). In Navar ra,
one of the autonomous regions that hosts a great deal of wind-
power development, wind can fulﬁll nearly half of the region’s
power needs. “We’re talking about a sector today that is one
of the most dynamic parts of Spanish industry,” said Garcia.
Creating and Developing the Wind-Power
Market in Spain
Spain has created some of the world leaders in this industry. In
the early 1980s, turbine manufacturer Ecotecnia was one of the
ﬁrst companies to install a wind-power generator in Spain. The
company began in the renewable energies sector, then focused
on wind generation when Director Antoni Martinez decided to
follow the examples of Denmark and California.
According to Martinez, interest and business in wind-power
began to pick up in 1992 and took off in 1997, when the Spanish
government instituted a new electricity act. With the act, the
government set a ﬁxed premium every year according to the
baseline cost of power from electric utilities, with a premium to
ensure proﬁtability for wind farms. In addition, utilities are
obligated to buy any wind power produced and integrate it into
the national grid.
Ecotecnia is still a major player in the Spanish wind-power
market, selling turbines in Spain and around the world. What’s
more, the market has expanded to create international power-
houses like Gamesa Eólica, major national energy companies
such as Iberdrola, and Acciona Energía, the renewable energies
subsidiary of the Acciona Group, a major Spanish business group
with thousands of employees.
Iberdrola set up its ﬁrst wind farm in 2000; already by 2005, it
had become the largest owner of wind farms in the world.
Meanwhile, Acciona Energía is the largest wind-park
constr uctor and developer in the world. The company credits
its success to its beginnings in the region of Navar ra in 1994. “We
were pioneers with a plan of implementing wind power in Navarra
when wind wasn’t yet looked on as an important economic sector,”
said the company’s director of marketing, Jose Arrieta.
“This is giving real corporate credence to the industry. It’s
bringing in capital and ﬁnancial sophistication,” said Godfrey
Chua, principal analyst of Emerging Energy Research, an inde-
pendent organization that provides ma rket research about wind
power. “It’s also bringing a level of scale to the industry that it has
never seen before.”
Most helpful in Spain, according to companies and the
government, has been the stable environment created by govern-
ment laws ﬁrst passed in 1997 and updated as needed. The Span-
ish government sets the cost of wind power each year, based on the
costs of power from conventional sources, with an added premium
for wind to ensure a return on their investment.
Wind-power operators have two options: to sell electricity
at a ﬁxed rate that includes a tariff, or to sell freely in the market
and receive a special premium on top of the market price.
Each year, this premium is adjusted appropriately.
8.68% Neg Micon (Vestas)
Danta y Preneal
Acciona Energía 6%
Energi E2 3%
UF ENEL 2%
Gamesa Eólica 1%
Source: 2004 AEE
Source: 2004 AEE
Spanish Market Share
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